India: States Make Controversial Employment Law Changes

On Sept. 7, the state government of Maharashtra changed the law governing employment in retail and commercial establishments to exempt those employing fewer than 10 persons from compliance, a change estimated to affect 350,000 establishments and several million employees.

In good news for small, new, and new-entrant foreign establishments, the Maharashtra Shops and Establishments (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act of 2017 brought the law into conformity with present-day reality by, for instance, enabling women to work hours other than 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m., allowing online business registration and filing of returns, and empowering the government to fix separate opening and closing hours for various establishments, such as malls and shopping complexes.

To boost a vibrant industrial sector that contributes 14.6 percent of the country’s GDP, Maharashtra earlier this year amended the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act to exempt businesses employing fewer than 50 people from statutory provisions preventing the employment of contract workers for work considered perennial in nature. The law previously applied to businesses employing 20 or more employees. Read More

Laws for Owning Drones and Gyroplanes in Pipeline in India

Drones are unmanned aircraft that can fly autonomously without a human in control. The flight (speed, navigation, aerobatics, etc.) are controlled by onboard computers which are in turn directed by remote human operators.

Gyroplanes are aircrafts, such as a Helicopters, Microlight aircraft, Light sport aircraft or Autogyros, equipped with wings that rotate about an approximately vertical axis.

Recently the Director General of Civil Aviation has laid down the following draft rules for commercial usage of drones and gyroplanes:

Licence permit for Drones

  • Drones weighing more than 250 grams will not be allowed to fly unless such aircraft has been allotted a Unique Identification Number by the Director-General. The fee to issue a unique identification number for a remotely piloted aircraft would amount to Rupees 1000 only.
  • The fees payable for grant of permit is Rupees 50,000 and for renewal of permit is Rupees 15,000 which is to be paid in the manner specified by the Director-General.
  • As per the conditions of the permit issued by the Director-General, a remotely piloted aircraft with all up weight exceeding the limit as specified by the Director- General from time to time is not to be permitted to fly by the operator.

Licence and pilot permit for Gyroplanes

  • The applicant should not be less than 17 years of age on the date of application.
  • Should have passed Class 10 or equivalent examination from a recognised Board.
  • Provide a certificate of physical fitness from an approved medical practitioner as per the requirements notified by the Director General.
  • Pass a written examination in Air Regulations, Air Navigation, Aviation Meteorology and Aircraft and Engine. An applicant who holds a valid Private Pilot’s Licence (Aeroplanes)/ (Helicopters) or a higher category of Pilot’s Licence shall pass an examination in Aircraft and Engines only.
  • Completed flying training in accordance with the syllabus prescribed by the Director-General.
  • The Licence shall indicate the type of gyroplane the holder is entitled to fly.
  • A Pilot of a gyroplane should have completed at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 15 hours of solo flight time of which 10 hours at the minimum should be completed within 12 months.
  • The holder of a current Private Pilot’s Licence (Helicopter) or a higher category of Licence (Helicopter) are only required to carry out familiarization flights under the supervision of an approved Examiner or a Flight Instructor authorized by the Director-General satisfactorily that need to be followed by not less than 3 solo take-offs and landings.
  • When a pilot completes a minimum of 100 hours of flight time as Pilot-in-Command, they are given an open rating for all types of gyroplanes.
  • Successfully perform the procedures and maneuvers prescribed in the syllabus, within 6 months of the date of application.
  • A Gyroplane Pilot is not allowed to:
    • Carry a passenger or property for compensation or hire.
    • Fly at night.
    • Fly in Class D and E airspace (controlled airspace) unless he holds a valid Flight Radio Telephony Operator’s Licence (Restricted) and has been trained by an approved instructor.
    • Fly at an altitude of more than 10,000 feet mean sea level or 2000 feet above ground level, whichever is higher and surface visibility is less than 5000 meter.
    • Fly without visual reference to surface.
    • Fly contrary to any operating limitation placed on the special certificate of airworthiness of the aircraft being flown.

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