Mergers and Competition Law: Assessing the Regulatory Landscape in India's Media and Entertainment Sector

Mergers and Competition Law: Assessing the Regulatory Landscape in India's Media and Entertainment Sector

I had the opportunity to speak to Exchange4Media on the legal ramifications of the Zee-Sony merger's almost success/failure saga. While the views were first published here, I have delved deeper into the regulatory landscape in India's media and entertainment sector in this article.

The Indian media and entertainment (M&E) industry witnessed a near-miss with the proposed Zee-Sony Pictures merger, highlighting the intricate dance between business ambitions and regulatory scrutiny. While this deal ultimately fell through, its journey illuminates the complex landscape of mergers and competition law in this dynamic sector. 

The Indian media and entertainment (M&E) industry is on an exhilarating growth trajectory, fueled by rising internet penetration, increasing disposable income, and a burgeoning young population. This dynamic expansion attracts significant mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity, often raising concerns about potential anti-competitive effects. Indian lawyers and industry professionals navigating this complex landscape must stay abreast of the evolving regulatory framework and its interplay with market trends.

Understanding the Regulatory Framework

Competition law in India primarily lies under the Competition Act, 2002, enforced by the Competition Commission of India (CCI). While the Act applies broadly, specific regulations like the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995, and the Cinematograph Act, 1952, also influence M&E mergers.

The CCI assesses mergers based on their impact on competition, considering factors like market share, potential entry barriers, and vertical integration. Media-specific concerns like plurality of views, diversity of content, and editorial independence also factor in.

Shifting Market Trends and Regulatory Responses

1. Convergence and Consolidation:

  • The lines between traditional media (TV, radio) and digital platforms (OTT, online gaming) are blurring. Disney's acquisition of Star India exemplifies this trend.

  • The CCI greenlit this deal with conditions to safeguard competition in sports broadcasting and ensure content neutrality.

2. Rise of Tech Giants:

  • Global tech giants like Amazon and Google are increasingly involved in M&E, raising concerns about data control and content manipulation.

  • The CCI initiated an investigation into Google's Play Store policy changes, highlighting its vigilance towards tech dominance.

3. Emergence of New Business Models:

  • Subscription-based models (Netflix, Hotstar) and aggregation platforms (Disney+ Hotstar) are gaining traction.

  • The CCI is yet to establish clear guidelines for these models, creating uncertainty for businesses.

4. Local vs. Global Content:

  • Balancing the promotion of local content with allowing competition from international players remains a challenge.

  • The government recently amended FDI norms to restrict foreign investment in the news media sector, reflecting this concern.

5. Evolving Regulatory Approach:

  • The CCI is adopting a more nuanced approach, considering market dynamics and consumer welfare beyond just market share.

  • Recent approvals, like Zee-Sony Pictures merger, emphasize conditions to address potential competition concerns.

Key Considerations for Industry Professionals

  • Early engagement with regulatory authorities: Proactive consultations can help navigate complexities and obtain timely approvals.

  • Structured market analysis: Understanding market dynamics and potential competition concerns is crucial before undertaking mergers.

  • Compliance with specific regulations: Adherence to media-specific regulations alongside competition law is essential.

  • Focus on consumer welfare: Demonstrating how mergers benefit consumers strengthens approval prospects.

The Indian M&E sector's regulatory landscape is undergoing constant evolution. Staying informed about shifting market trends, regulatory updates, and their interplay is critical for industry professionals and lawyers to navigate M&A activity successfully. By adopting a proactive and informed approach, stakeholders can ensure compliance, facilitate smooth transactions, and contribute to the growth of a vibrant and competitive M&E ecosystem in India.


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